Monday, April 18, 2011

A Shattered Pearl - A Philippines timeline

A Shattered Pearl- A Philippines timeline
Defeat of Bolkiah

Bolkiah and his Bornean forces were defeated and kicked from the Island of Manila, and the bloody religious wars against muslims in the Island of Manila is brewing,Dayang Kaylangitan was married into one of the Noble families in the Island of Manila, Lakan Gambang sires a male heir named Jayadewa and because of this the House of Tondo is continued and Lakan Gambang favors Buddhism and not Islam and because of this Islam was frowned upon and the community leaders and majority of the Nobility were against the Islam thus Lakan Gambang declares a war against Mohammedism which he thinks is a religion that will be used by Borneo to gain some control of his dominion, he also orders for the Muslim missionaries to leave his Island alone which start the wars of Religion.
And also because of the war of religion the Batangas area was starting resettled by Buddhists from the North and the muslims expelled in 1515 because they were treated as traitors to their own country thus the Muslims were starting to be forced to emigrate to Borneo.
The forces of Abdul Kahar invaded Bicol, Mindoro, Kalamian, Cavite and Batangas with the displaced muslims in the army in 1520.
The Capital was moved further north to the present day Malolos because of this the center of Power was shifted northwards and Jayadewa succeeds to the throne in the Island of Manila.
Jayadewa decided to continue his father's wars against the Bruneians and recapture the southern provinces namely Bicol, Mindoro, Kalamian, Cavite and Batangas in the Island of Manila but they were lost again and the Bruneians recapture the southern provinces in the island of Manila, Jayadewa was anti-muslim.

Jayadewa’s son named Indrapura becomes is given power by Jayadewa and because of this he can govern along side with his father.

Meanwhile in the Sulu Archipelago, Karim ul-Makhdum arrived in Simunul island from Malacca, again, with Arab traders. Apart from being a scholar, he is a trader and believed to be a Sufi missionary whose origin is from Mecca. He preached Islam in the area, and was thus accepted by the core Muslim community. He was the second person who preached Islam in the area, since Tuan Mashā′ikha. To facilitate easy conversion of nonbelievers, he established a mosque in Tubig-Indagan, Simunul, which became the first Islamic temple to be constructed in the area, as well as in the Philippines. This was later known as Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque. He died in Sulu, though the exact location of his grave is unknown. In Buansa, he was known as Tuan Sharif Awliyā. On his alleged grave in Bud Agad, Jolo, an inscription was written as "Mohadum Aminullah Al-Nikad". In Lugus, he is referred to Abdurrahman. In Sibutu, he is known to as his name.
The different of beliefs on his grave locations is due to the fact that Karim ul-Makhdum travelled to several islands in Sulu Sea to preach Islam. In many places in the archipelago, he was beloved. It is said that the people of Tapul built a mosque honoring him and that they claim descent from Karim ul-Makhdum. Thus, the success of Karim ul-Makhdum of spreading Islam in Sulu threw a new light in Islamic history in the Philippines. The customs, beliefs and political laws of the people were changed and customized to adopt the Islamic tradition.


Magellan called Guam the "Island of Sails" because they saw a lot of sailboats. They renamed it to "Ladrones Island" (Island of Thieves) because many of Trinidad's small boats were stolen there. On 16 March Magellan reached the island of Homonhon in the Philippines, with 150 crew left. Members of his expedition became the first Spaniards to reach the Philippine archipelago, but they were not the first Europeans.
Magellan was able to communicate with the native tribes because his Malay interpreter, Enrique, could understand their languages. Enrique was indentured by Magellan in 1511 right after the colonization of Malacca and was at his side during the battles in Africa, during Magellan's disgrace at the King's court in Portugal and during Magellan's successful raising of a fleet. They traded gifts with Rajah Siaiu of Mazaua who guided them to Cebu on April 7.
Rajah Humabon of Cebu was friendly towards Magellan and the Spaniards, both he and his queen Hara Amihan were baptized as Christians. Afterward, Rajah Humabon and his ally Datu Zula convinced Magellan to kill their enemy, Datu Lapu-Lapu, on Mactan. Magellan had wished to convert Lapu-Lapu to Christianity, as he had Humabon, a proposal of which Lapu-Lapu was dismissive. On the morning of April 27, 1521, Magellan sailed to Mactan with a small attack force. During the resulting battle against Lapu-Lapu's troops, Magellan was hit by a bamboo spear and later surrounded and finished off with other weapons.
Pigafetta and Ginés de Mafra provided written documents of the events culminating in Magellan's death:
"When morning came, forty-nine of us leaped into the water up to our thighs, and walked through water for more than two cross-bow flights before we could reach the shore. The boats could not approach nearer because of certain rocks in the water. The other eleven men remained behind to guard the boats. When we reached land, [the natives] had formed in three divisions to the number of more than one thousand five hundred people. When they saw us, they charged down upon us with exceeding loud cries... The musketeers and crossbow-men shot from a distance for about a half-hour, but uselessly... Recognizing the captain, so many turned upon him that they knocked his helmet off his head twice... A native hurled a bamboo spear into the captain's face, but the latter immediately killed him with his lance, which he left in the native's body. Then, trying to lay hand on sword, he could draw it out but halfway, because he had been wounded in the arm with a bamboo spear. When the natives saw that, they all hurled themselves upon him. One of them wounded him on the left leg with a large cutlass, which resembles a scimitar, only being larger. That caused the captain to fall face downward, when immediately they rushed upon him with iron and bamboo spears and with their cutlasses, until they killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and our true guide. When they wounded him, he turned back many times to see whether we were all in the boats. Thereupon, beholding him dead, we, wounded, retreated, as best we could, to the boats, which were already pulling off."
Magellan provided in his will that Enrique, his interpreter, was to be freed upon his death. However, after the Battle of Mactan, the remaining ships' masters refused to free Enrique. Enrique escaped his indenture on May 1 with the aid of Rajah Humabon, amid the deaths of almost 30 crewmen. Pigafetta had been jotting down words in both Butuanon and Cebuano languages — which he started at Mazaua on Friday, 29 March and grew to a total of 145 words — and was apparently able to continue communications during the rest of the voyage. The Spaniards offered the natives merchandise in exchange for Magellan's body, but they were declined and so his body was never recovered.

Miguel Lopez De Legaspi

Born in 1502, Miguel López de Legazpi was the youngest son of Don Juan Martínez López de Legazpi and Doña Elvira de Gurruchátegui. He was born to a Basque noble family and lived in the town of Zumárraga, in the Basque province of Guipúzcoa in Spain. Between 1526 and 1527, López de Legazpi worked as a councilor in the municipal government of his town.

In 1528, Hernán Cortés established settlements in North America and López de Legazpi traveled to Mexico (New Spain) to start a new life. This was due to the death of his parents and his dissatisfaction with his eldest sibling, who inherited the family fortune. In Tlaxcala, he worked with Juan Garcés and Juan's sister, Isabel Garcés. López de Legazpi would go on to marry Isabel and have nine children with her. Isabel died in the mid 1550s. Between the periods of 1528 and 1559, he worked as a leader of the financial department council and as the civil governor of Mexico City. He was commissioned by the viceroy, Luis de Velasco, in 1564, to lead an expedition in the Pacific Ocean, to find the Spice Islands where the previous explorers Ferdinand Magellan and Ruy López de Villalobos had landed in 1521 and 1543, respectively. The expedition was ordered by king Philip II of Spain, after whom the islands were named. The viceroy died in July of that year, but the Audiencia and López de Legazpi completed the preparations for the expedition. On November 21, 1564, five ships and 500 soldiers, sailed from the port of Barra de Navidad, New Spain, in what is now Jalisco state, Mexico.



López de Legazpi and his men sailed the Pacific Ocean for 93 days. In 1565, they landed in the Mariana Islands, where they briefly anchored and replenished their supplies. They fought with Chamorro tribes and burned several huts.
López de Legazpi's troops arrived in the Philippines and landed in the shores of Cebu on February 13, 1565. After a brief struggle with hostile natives, they left the island in search of food, water, supplies and other resources. On February 22, 1565 they reached the island of Samar guided by Datu Urrao. The Spaniards and their native allies left the island for the nearby islands of Mazaua and Leyte, guided by Datu Bankaw. Their ships drifted to the coast of Bohol on March 16, 1565 where they befriended with Datu Sikatuna and Rajah Sigala. López de Legazpi made a blood compact with the native chieftain, Datu Sikatuna, as a sign of friendship between the two people. There, the Spaniards obtained spices and gold after convincing the natives that they were not Portuguese.
On April 27, 1565, the Spaniards and their native allies sailed back to Cebu and attacked the villages of Rajah Tupas, which led to the surrender of the settlements. There, the Spaniards established their colony, naming it "Villa del Santisimo Nombre de Jesús" (Town of the Most Holy Name of Jesus), and "Villa de San Miguel" (Saint Michael's Town). In 1568, López de Legazpi sent one of his men back to Spain to report on his progress. He remained in Cebu and did not accompany his men during their seize of Bruneian south of the Island of Manila.

Aside from baptizing the natives and giving them Christian names, the islands were renamed to "Filipinas" in honor of Felipe II de España (Philip II of Spain).
On May 8, 1570, they arrived in Manila Bay. the Spaniards occupied the Bruneian Occupied parts of the Island of Manila, where a battle was fought and expelled the Bruneians from the Southern part of the Island of Manila.
In the same year, more reinforcements arrived in the Philippines, prompting López de Legazpi to leave Cebu. He recruited 250 Spanish soldiers and 600 native warriors to explore the regions of Leyte and Panay. He followed Goiti and Salcedo to Manila the following year, after hearing the villages had been conquered.
He proclaimed the town, Balayan, Batangas as the island's capital, and the seat of the Spanish government in the East Indies.

Shariff Muhammed Kabungsuwan was the first Sultan of Maguindanao in the Philippines. A native of Johor on the Malay Archipelago, Kabungsuwan later re-settled in Mindanao in the Philippines where he preached Islam to the native tribes around the region.
Kabungsuwan is of Arab-Malay ethnicity. He subsequently married a local princess and established the Sultanate of Maguindanao in the 16th century. The sultanate was usually centered in the valley of Cotabato.




Limahong

In the mean time Indrapura encourages the Buddhist monks from Korea and Tibet in 1520.
Buddhist temples are built in the Island of Manila because of Indrapura being a devout buddhist who built many Buddhist temples and make the Buddhist religion a common belief in the Island of Manila specifically in Mayi the area controled by the House of Tondo.

On the later part of his reign the southern part of the Island of Manila became a part of the Spanish Empire and tried to get it but was unsuccessful.

Later on Indrapura is replaced by his son named Indradewa in 1540.


Born Dim Mhon to a poor family in the city of Tru Cheo (Teochew) in the province of Cuy Tan (called Catim by the Portuguese during the middle of the 16th century). Known to be called Limahong, he had an early start in criminal activity and progressed to piracy becoming leader of around 2000 pirates. His activities and attacks on ports and ships throughout southern China increased and a warrant was issued by the authorities to capture him alive and send him to the city of Tay Bin. He was married to Nataracy.
He shifted his activities to piracy on the high seas and out of reach of China's power. He was able to accumulate up to 40 ships, whereupon he once again raided cities and ports in southern China. Limahong attacked a city occupied by Vinh To Quiam, another pirate, but Vinh was able to escape along with 5 of Limahong's ships. However, Limahong was able to capture 55 of Vinh's fleet and thus increased his own to 95 ships. He was now a veritable king of the high seas of southern China.
In late 1573, he gathered an army of 3,000 Chinese warriors, renegades and vagabonds and fled to the island of Manila. There, he and his band of outlaws sought refuge, established their own kingdom and waged war with the Spaniards.

By this time, a force of 40,000 soldiers and 135 ships was sent by the Chinese to kill and capture Limahong. Limahong and his troops first arrived in Ilocos Sur in early 1574.

It was November 29, 1574. The inhabitants of the town of Parañaque, a royal encomienda, was under heavy attack from the forces of the notorious Chinese pirate, Limahong, who were on their way to Intramuros in Selurong and Balayan, the seat of Spanish rule in the Philippines.
The stiff resistance of the barrio residents shocked the Chinese pirate, who thought that capturing Manila would be easy. What Limahong did not expect was that the defenders of the community, that would later be known as Dongalo, despite being ill-equipped, would fight to the end, so much so that the sea in front of the barrio turned red with their blood.
The battle became known as the "Red Sea Incident".
The Paraqueños not only saved their town, but they contributed decisively to Limahong's abandoning his plans to conquer the area. In appreciation for Galo's leadership and heroic deeds, the Spanish authorities granted him the title of "Don". The barrio later on was named after him. Thus, Don Galo or Dongalo.

Foiled at Selurong to establish a kingdom of his own, Limahong set sail for the Lingayen Gulf, to settle in Pangasinan province which was controlled by the Dominion of Tondo or Mayi. As a rich place and far enough from the reach of the Spaniards and the Chinese emperor, Limahong resolved to stay here and to make himself master of the region.

Limahong and his crew invaded Ilocos later on but failed to get Pangasinan but the Dominion of Tondo or Mayi currently ruled by Indradewa consider them as enemies but decided to allow them to carve a kingdom in their territory.

Indradewa signed a temporary peace pact with Limahong in 1580 allowing him to rule the lands he posseses.


Koxinga
Indradewa’s successor is named Indrapura II named after his grandfather.

Indrapura II succeeded Indradewa in 1600 after Indradewa died and the capital of Mayi is shifted again northwards to Lagawe. In the OTL Ifugao province that is why it is called to the Outsiders as the Kingdom of Lagawe.

Indrapura II was a known patron of Buddhism in his later reign and he is known for his love for meditating that he was a monkish king while he tolerates his enemies, Spain and the Kingdom of Limahong, he builds of a Buddhist temple in OTL Ifugao province.

He is known for his long life that he later made his son Rama a junior king.

In 1624, Koxinga, whose name at birth was Zheng Sen, was born in Hirado, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan to Zheng Zhilong, a Chinese merchant and pirate, and a Japanese woman whose surname was Tagawa, and whose given name has been lost to posterity. He was raised there until the age of seven and then moved to Nan'an county in Quanzhou in Fujian province of China.
In 1638, Koxinga became a Xiucai (a successful candidate) in the imperial examination and became one of the twelve Linshansheng (廩膳生) of Nan'an. In 1641, Koxinga married the niece of Dong Yangxian, an official who was a Jinshi from Hui'an. In 1644, Koxinga studied at the Imperial Nanking University, where he met and became a student of the scholar Qian Qianyi.
In 1644, Beijing fell to rebels led by Li Zicheng and the Chongzhen Emperor hanged himself on a tree at modern-day Jingshan Park in Beijing. Manchurian armies aided by Wu Sangui's forces defeated the rebels and took the city. The Ming remnant forces retreated to Nanjing where the Prince Fu ascended to the throne as the Hongguang Emperor. The next year, the Manchurian armies led by Dodo advanced south and conquered Yangzhou and Nanjing while the Ming defending leader of Yangzhou, Shi Kefa, was killed. The Hongguang Emperor was captured and executed.

In 1645, Prince Tang was installed on the throne as the Longwu Emperor with support from Zheng Zhilong and his family. The Longwu Emperor established his court in Fuzhou, which was controlled by the Zhengs. In the later part of the year, another Ming Prince Lu proclaimed himself as Regent (監國) in Shaoxing and established his own court there. Although Prince Lu and Longwu's regimes stemmed from the same dynasty, both of them pursued different goals.
It was due to the natural defences of Fujian and the provision of military resources by the Zheng family, that the emperor was able to remain safe for some time. The Longwu Emperor granted Zheng Zhilong's son, Zheng Sen, a new personal name, "Chenggong" (success), and the title of Guoxingye ("Lord of the Imperial Surname"; Koxinga).
In 1646, Koxinga first led the Ming armies to resist the Manchurian invaders and won the favour of the Longwu Emperor. The Longwu Emperor's reign in Fuzhou was brief, as Zheng Zhilong refused to support his plans for a counter-offensive against the rapidly-expanding forces of the newly-established Qing Dynasty by the Manchus. Zheng Zhilong ordered the defending general of Xianxia Pass (仙霞關), Shi Fu (a.k.a. Shi Tianfu, a relative of Shi Lang), to retreat to Fuzhou even when Qing armies approached Fujian. As such, the Qing army faced little resistance when it conquered the north of the pass. In September 1646, Qing armies broke through inadequately defended mountain passes and entered Fujian. Zheng Zhilong retreated to his coastal fortress and the Longwu Emperor faced the Qing armies alone. Longwu's forces were destroyed and he was captured and died shortly afterwards.

The Qing forces sent envoys to meet Zheng Zhilong secretly and they offered to appoint him as the governor of both Fujian and Guangdong provinces if he would surrender to Qing. Zheng Zhilong agreed and ignored the objections of his family, surrendering himself to the Qing forces in Fuzhou on 21 November 1646. Koxinga and his uncles were left as the successors to the leadership of Zheng Zhilong's military forces. Koxinga operated outside Xiamen and recruited many to join his cause in a few months. He used the superiority of his naval forces to launch amphibious raids on Manchu-occupied territory in Fujian and he managed to take Tong'an in Quanzhou prefecture in early 1647. However, Koxinga's forces lacked the ability to defend the newly-occupied territory.
Following the fall of Tong'an to Zheng, the Manchus launched a counterattack in the spring of 1647, during which they stormed the Zheng family's hometown of Anping. Koxinga's mother, Lady Tagawa, had come from Japan in 1645 to join her family in Fujian (Koxinga's younger half-brother, Tagawa Shichizaemon, remained in Japan). She did not follow her husband to surrender to the Qing Dynasty. She was caught by Manchu forces in Anping and committed suicide after refusal to submit to the enemy, according to traditional accounts.



By 1650, Koxinga was strong enough to establish himself as the head of the Zheng family. He pledged allegiance to the only remaining claimant to the throne of the Ming Dynasty, the Yongli Emperor. The Yongli Emperor was fleeing from the Manchus in south-western China with a motley court and hastily assembled army then. Despite one fruitless attempt, Koxinga was unable to do anything to aid the last Ming emperor. Instead, he decided to concentrate on securing his own position on the southeast coast.
Koxinga enjoyed a series of military successes in 1651 and 1652 that increased the Qing government's anxiety over the threat he posed. The fight carried out massacre in Zhangzhou. Zheng Zhilong wrote a letter to his son from Beijing, presumably at the request of the Shunzhi Emperor and the Qing government, urging his son to negotiate with the Manchurians. The long series of negotiations between Koxinga and the Qing Dynasty lasted until November 1654. The Qing government appointed Prince Jidu (son of Jirgalang) to lead an attack on Koxinga's territory after the failed negotiations.
On 9 May 1656, Jidu's armies attacked Jinmen, an island near Xiamen that Koxinga had been using to train his troops. Partly as a result of a major storm, the Manchus were defeated and they lost most of their fleet in the battle. Koxinga had sent one of his naval commanders to capture Zhoushan island prior to Jidu's attack, and now that the Manchus were temporarily without an effective naval force in the Fujian area, Koxinga was free to send a huge army to Zhoushan, which he intended to use as a base to capture Nanjing.


In 1661, Koxinga forced a landing on Luerhmen (simplified Chinese: 鹿耳门; traditional Chinese: 鹿耳門; pinyin: Lù'ěrmén), Taiwan. In less than a year, he captured Fort Provintia and besieged Fort Zeelandia; with no external help coming, Frederick Coyett, the Dutch governor negotiated a treaty, where the Dutch surrendered the fortress and left all the goods and property of the Dutch East India Company behind. In return, all Dutch officials, soldiers and civilians left with their personal belongings and supplies back to Batavia (present-day Jakarta, Indonesia), ending the 38 years of Dutch colonial rule on Taiwan later on Koxinga attacked the kingdom established by Limahong in the Island of Manila and annexed it and seized and annexed the Batanes group of Islands.

Koxinga proceeded to devote himself to building Taiwan into an effective base for anti-Qing Dynasty activists who wanted to restore the Ming Dynasty to power.

In 1662, at the age of 39, Koxinga died of malaria, although speculations said that he died in a sudden fit of madness upon hearing that his father was executed by the Qing government in Beijing.

His son, Zheng Jing, succeeded him as the ruler of Taiwan, with the inherited title of Prince of Yanping.

King Indrapura II of Mayi made peace with Koxinga and later his heir in 1663 but they are an ally with Qing in order to drive out the Chinese from their land later on.






The start of the War of Spanish succession

Lakan Rama I replaces King Indrapura II in 1680, Rama I increased the persecution of Christians in his realm and make the penalty for the adherence to the Christian religion as death, his successor, his son is also named Rama later known as Rama II because of this there are many hostilities in the borders.



As Charlotte of Spain, the queen of Spain and married a Bolkiah from Brunei named Felipe Bolkiah. Thus, the issue of the inheritance of the Spanish kingdoms — which included not only Spain, but also dominions in Italy, the Low Countries, the Philippines and the Americas — became contentious because they believe that the new dynasty is not worthy. Three dynasties claimed the Spanish throne: the French Bourbons and the Austrian Habsburgs, both closely related to Charles and to his father, Philip IV and the new dynasty of Habsburg-Bolkiah.


Charlotte of Spain. Her death precipitated the War of the Spanish Succession as France and Austria vied for the Spanish Empire they wanted that her son Nicolas Habsburg-Bolkiah to never succeed the Spanish throne.


Conclusion to the Spanish war of Succession and the Duchy of Nueva Brunei
Nicolas Habsburg-Bolkiah lost in his war because of the lack of support but his representatives become present at the Treaty of Utrecht.

Under the Peace of Utrecht, Philip was recognized as King Philip V of Spain, but renounced his place in the French line of succession, thereby precluding the union of the French and Spanish crowns (although there was some sense in France that this renunciation was illegal). He retained the Spanish overseas empire, but ceded the Spanish Netherlands, Naples, Milan, and Sardinia to Austria; Sicily and parts of the Milanese to Savoy; and Gibraltar and Minorca to Great Britain. Moreover, he granted the British the exclusive right to non-Spanish slave trading in Spanish America for thirty years, the so-called asiento.

With regard to the political organization of their kingdoms, Philip issued the Nueva Planta decrees, following the centralizing approach of the Bourbons in France, ending the political autonomy of the kingdoms which had made up the Crown of Aragon; territories in Spain that had supported the Archduke Charles and up to then had kept their institutions in a framework of loose dynastic union, separate from the rest of the Spanish realm. On the other hand, the Kingdom of Navarre and the Basque Provinces, having supported the king against the Habsburg pretender, did not lose their autonomy and retained their traditional differentiated institutions and laws (fueros).

And the Spanish East Indies went to Nicolas Habsburg-Bolkiah, he renamed the former Spanish Philippines to the Duchy of New Brunei or Nueva-Brunei wherein he is a vassal of the Spanish king, Philip.

No important changes were made to French territory in Europe. Grandiose imperial desires to turn back the French expansion to the Rhine which had occurred since the middle decades of the seventeenth century were not realized, nor was the French border pushed back in the Low Countries. France agreed to stop supporting the Stuart pretenders to the British throne, instead recognizing Anne as the legitimate queen. France gave up various North American colonial possessions, recognizing British sovereignty over Rupert's Land and Newfoundland, and ceding Acadia and its half of Saint Kitts. The Dutch were permitted to retain various forts in the Spanish Netherlands, and were permitted to annex a part of Spanish Guelders.
With the Peace of Utrecht, the wars to prevent French hegemony that had dominated the latter part of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth century were over for the time being. France and Spain, both under Bourbon monarchs, remained allies during the following years.




 

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