Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Alternate history: Terraces and Pagodas 1.0

‘Higit sa aking pagiging hari, ipinagmamalaki ko ang tawag sa akin ng Nakoda. Karapat-dapat sapagkat walang dadaig sa akin sa pagdaragat maging sa unos at sagupa sa alimpuyo, dapat asahan sa isang katulad kong may dugong Vijaya.’

‘Kaya, mga abay sa pasigang ilog ng Lusong, huwag kayong magkukulang sa aking magiging anak, ang inyong magiging hari. At huwag n’yong kalilimutang magbuwis taon-taon ng ginto para sa Brunei, tanghal ngayong pulo ng ginto.’


http://www.elaput.org/conqrgam.htm

Since alot of people ask what if the Spanish did not come to the philippines or what if the Spanish did not successfully conquer the Philippines, I created this Alternate History story about the Philippines.



Survival of the Tondo Dynasty

Lakan Gambang’s troops defeats the troops of Sultan Bolkiah of Brunei and displays his head on his palace.

Dayang Kaylangitan, the daughter of Lakan Gambang was married to the ruling family of Lihan, OTL Malolos, Bulacan making the ruling family of Lihan have a possible claim to dominate the Island of Selurong.

Lakan Gambang sires a heir named Indrapura who persecuted Islamic converts.

In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships. They conquered the city on August 24, 1511. It became a strategic base for Portuguese expansion in the East Indies. Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca, took refuge in the hinterland, and made intermittent raids both by land and sea, causing considerable hardship for the Portuguese. In the meantime, the Portuguese built the fort named A Famosa to defend Malacca (its gate is all that remains of the ruins at present). "In order to appease the King of Ayudhya (Siam), the Portuguese sent up an ambassador, Duarte Fernandes, who was well received by Ramathibodi." in 1511. Finally in 1526, a large force of Portuguese ships, under the command of Pedro Mascarenhas, was sent to destroy Bintan, where Sultan Mahmud was based. Sultan Mahmud fled with his family across the Straits to Kampar in Sumatra, where he died five years later.

Indrapura finally succeeds Gambang as the Lakan and becomes Lakan Indrapura in 1515.

In the meantime the Sultan of Brunei. Abdul Kahar replaces his dead father after knowing that his father died in the battle and he wants revenge against the death of his father since he knew that Lakan Gambang killed his father, Bolkiah.

In 1516, Abdul Kahar conquers Madya-As and annex the western part of Visayas completely and the rulers of Madya-as executed and Madya-as disappears completely.

Abdul Kahar also conquers the Principality of Pandarunga, which was what remains of Champa which was because of the plea of the Muslims and the Chams and annexes a part of Cambodia and parts of Vietnam but were defeated in the inner part of Cambodia by Sri Sukonthor but Brunei retained the territories they annexed and annexes the Southern part of the Island of Selurong or Luzon and because of this the capital of Mayi moved northwards and it will no longer be known as the Kingdom of Tondo but as the Kingdom of Lagawe because the capital was moved to Lagawe, the seat of the Lakan was moved to Lagawe but they had secured the border in the Pasig river, Sierra Madre and the lake of Pulilan the Lake that is known OTL as Laguna de Bay.

The Empire of Brunei became known to Europeans as Bornesia.

Magellan’s fleet Heading northwest, the crew reached the equator on February 13, 1521. On 6 March they reached the Marianas and Guam. Magellan called Guam the "Island of Sails" because they saw a lot of sailboats. They renamed it to "Ladrones Island" (Island of Thieves) because many of Trinidad's small boats were stolen there. On 16 March Magellan reached the island of Homonhon in the Philippines, with 150 crew left. Members of his expedition became the first Spaniards to reach the Philippine archipelago, but they were not the first Europeans.

Magellan goes to the Bruneian Empire seeing that the Bruneian Empire or Bornesia was very rich and had a lot of gold and was very rich in culture the old Abdul Kahar talks to Magellan and even gives him goods from the Bruneian empire.

Magellan was able to communicate with the native tribes because his Malay interpreter, Enrique, could understand their languages. Enrique was indentured by Magellan in 1511 right after the colonization of Malacca and was at his side during the battles in Africa, during Magellan's disgrace at the King's court in Portugal and during Magellan's successful raising of a fleet. They traded gifts with Rajah Siaiu of Mazaua who guided them to Cebu on April 7.
Rajah Humabon of Cebu was friendly towards Magellan and the Spaniards, both he and his queen Hara Amihan were baptized as Christians. Afterward, Rajah Humabon and his ally Datu Zula convinced Magellan to kill their enemy, Datu Lapu-Lapu, on Mactan. Magellan had wished to convert Lapu-Lapu to Christianity, as he had Humabon, a proposal of which Lapu-Lapu was dismissive. On the morning of April 27, 1521, Magellan sailed to Mactan with a small attack force. During the resulting battle against Lapu-Lapu's troops, Magellan was hit by a bamboo spear and later surrounded and finished off with other weapons.


Magellan's voyage led to Limasawa, Cebu, Mactan, Palawan, Brunei, Celebes and finally to the Spice Islands.
Pigafetta and Ginés de Mafra provided written documents of the events culminating in Magellan's death:
"When morning came, forty-nine of us leaped into the water up to our thighs, and walked through water for more than two cross-bow flights before we could reach the shore. The boats could not approach nearer because of certain rocks in the water. The other eleven men remained behind to guard the boats. When we reached land, [the natives] had formed in three divisions to the number of more than one thousand five hundred people. When they saw us, they charged down upon us with exceeding loud cries... The musketeers and crossbow-men shot from a distance for about a half-hour, but uselessly... Recognizing the captain, so many turned upon him that they knocked his helmet off his head twice... A native hurled a bamboo spear into the captain's face, but the latter immediately killed him with his lance, which he left in the native's body. Then, trying to lay hand on sword, he could draw it out but halfway, because he had been wounded in the arm with a bamboo spear. When the natives saw that, they all hurled themselves upon him. One of them wounded him on the left leg with a large cutlass, which resembles a scimitar, only being larger. That caused the captain to fall face downward, when immediately they rushed upon him with iron and bamboo spears and with their cutlasses, until they killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and our true guide. When they wounded him, he turned back many times to see whether we were all in the boats. Thereupon, beholding him dead, we, wounded, retreated, as best we could, to the boats, which were already pulling off."
Magellan provided in his will that Enrique, his interpreter, was to be freed upon his death. However, after the Battle of Mactan, the remaining ships' masters refused to free Enrique. Enrique escaped his indenture on May 1 with the aid of Rajah Humabon, amid the deaths of almost 30 crewmen. Pigafetta had been jotting down words in both Butuanon and Cebuano languages — which he started at Mazaua on Friday, 29 March and grew to a total of 145 words — and was apparently able to continue communications during the rest of the voyage. The Spaniards offered the natives merchandise in exchange for Magellan's body, but they were declined and so his body was never recovered.


Shariff Muhammed Kabungsuwan was the first Sultan of Maguindanao in the Philippines. A native of Johor on the Malay Archipelago, Kabungsuwan later re-settled in Mindanao in the Philippines where he preached Islam to the native tribes around the region.
Kabungsuwan is of Arab-Malay ethnicity. He subsequently married a local princess and established the Sultanate of Maguindanao in the 16th century. The sultanate was usually centered in the valley of Cotabato.

Indrapura II succeeds his father Indrapura in the throne as Lakan in Tondo in 1550 after the death of Indrapura, Indrapura expelled the muslims from his territory completely and had many Buddhist temples built.

Later on many Tibetan monks migrate and establish their teachings in the Island of Selurong and decided to build monasteries for monks there.

Some Buddhist monks from Tibet traveling to the Island of Selurong were stranded in Taiwan contributing to Middag.

López de Legazpi and his men sailed the Pacific Ocean for 93 days. In 1565, they landed in the Mariana Islands, where they briefly anchored and replenished their supplies. They fought with Chamorro tribes and burned several huts.
López de Legazpi's troops arrived in the Philippines and landed in the shores of Cebu on February 13, 1565. After a brief struggle with hostile natives, they left the island in search of food, water, supplies and other resources. On February 22, 1565 they reached the island of Samar guided by Datu Urrao. The Spaniards and their native allies left the island for the nearby islands of Mazaua and Leyte, guided by Datu Bankaw. Their ships drifted to the coast of Bohol on March 16, 1565 where they befriended with Datu Sikatuna and Rajah Sigala. López de Legazpi made a blood compact with the native chieftain, Datu Sikatuna, as a sign of friendship between the two people. There, the Spaniards obtained spices and gold after convincing the natives that they were not Portuguese.
On April 27, 1565, the Spaniards and their native allies sailed back to Cebu and attacked the villages of Rajah Tupas, which led to the surrender of the settlements. There, the Spaniards established their colony, naming it "Villa del Santisimo Nombre de Jesús" (Town of the Most Holy Name of Jesus), and "Villa de San Miguel" (Saint Michael's Town). In 1568, López de Legazpi sent one of his men back to Spain to report on his progress. He remained in Cebu and did not accompany his men during their colonization of the Bruneian Empire because of health problems and advanced age. Having heard of the rich resources in the Bruneian Empire, he dispatched two of his Lieutenant-commanders, Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo, to explore the Bruneian Empire, the strongest empire in South East Asia they raid the Bruneian Empire with the assistance of Cebu and Butuan who become faithful subjects of the Spanish crown.

The Bruneian Empire was defeated by the Spanish crown although the Spanish crown was never been able to get control Borneo, Brunei lost its territories outside of Borneo which are the Bruneian Indochina, Bruneian Visayas and Bruneian territories in the Island of Selurong(Kumintang, Mindoro and Bikol), Brunei would close its doors from any European involvement and trade but the OTL Mindoro rebelled and tried to join Lagawe but they were prevented from doing so but they created a new kingdom nominally vassal to the Lakan of Lagawe.

Spain made the pope make another papal bull to recognize that Indochina and their dominions in the OTL Philippines is their land in 1570.

Kingdom of Lagawe will be troubled by the attack of Limahong but Lakan Indrapura II makes a treaty giving him land and dominion in the Island of Selurong which is the Ilocos province and Lakan Indrapura II invites more Tibetan Buddhist monks and Cambodian monks and enriches the Buddhist religion making his reign a golden age although not for the expelled muslims and Lakan Indrapura gives the Eastern Part of the Island of Selurong north of Pulilan lake(OTL Laguna De Bay) to the rulers of Lihan/Malolos as a fief, at his time the Kingdom of Lagawe would be turned into a theocracy because the leader of the Buddhist monks became powerful in the Kingdom of Lagawe and they adopt a script derived from the Tibetan script like Hangul of Korea.

Lakan Indrapura II had made Nguyen Hoang visit his place causing the relations between Mayi/Lagawe and Dai-Viet to be better and a trading treaty and alliance was made between two polities.

Lakan Indrapura II tries to regain the Spanish part of the Island of Selurong but fails because of lack of help from the Vietnamese, Mayi/ Lagawe becomes isolationist to outside trade except to Buddhist countries like Tibet.

Lakan Indrapura II puts a more rigid defense in their capital in order to defend the capital from enemies.

In 1580, Indrapura II is replaced by his son Rama, Indrapura II retired to a monastery months before his death, Indrapura had been called the Lion of the Tagalogs(but he does not speak the language we call tagalog in this timeline).

In 1590, Spain joins the Imjin war with Japan and Mayi/Kingdom of Lagawe becomes neutral and does not join the war because it had been weakened despite of them most likely winning and getting their lost provinces of Kumintang and Bikol.

Koxinga and 7 years War

In Japan Like Hideyoshi, Ieyasu encouraged foreign trade but also was suspicious of outsiders. He wanted to make Edo a major port, but once he learned that the Europeans favored ports in Kyūshū and that China had rejected his plans for official trade, he moved to control existing trade and allowed only certain ports to handle specific kinds of commodities.
The beginning of the Edo period coincides with the last decades of the Nanban trade period during which intense interaction with European powers, on the economic and religious plane, took place. It is at the beginning of the Edo period that Japan built her first ocean-going Western-style warships, such as the San Juan Bautista, a 500-ton galleon-type ship that transported a Japanese embassy headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas and then to Europe. Also during that period, the bakufu commissioned around 350 Red Seal Ships, three-masted and armed trade ships, for intra-Asian commerce. Japanese adventurers, such as Yamada Nagamasa, used those ships throughout Asia.
The "Christian problem" was, in effect, a problem of controlling both the Christian daimyo in Kyūshū and their trade with the Europeans. By 1612, the shogun's retainers and residents of Tokugawa lands had been ordered to forswear Christianity. More restrictions came in 1616 (the restriction of foreign trade to Nagasaki and Hirado, an island northwest of Kyūshū), 1622 (the execution of 120 missionaries and converts), 1624 (the expulsion of the Spanish), and 1629 (the execution of thousands of Christians). Finally, the Closed Country Edict of 1635 prohibited any Japanese from traveling outside Japan or, if someone left, from ever returning. In 1636 the Dutch were restricted to Dejima, a small artificial island—and thus, not true Japanese soil—in Nagasaki's harbor.
The shogunate perceived Catholic Christianity to be an extremely destabilizing factor, leading to the persecution of Catholicism. The Shimabara Rebellion of 1637–38, in which discontented Catholic Christian samurai and peasants rebelled against the bakufu—and Edo called in Dutch ships to bombard the rebel stronghold—marked the end of the Christian movement, although some Catholic Christians survived by going underground, the so-called Kakure Kirishitan. Soon thereafter, the Portuguese were permanently expelled, members of the Portuguese diplomatic mission were executed, all subjects were ordered to register at a Buddhist or Shinto temple, and the Dutch and Chinese were restricted, respectively, to Dejima and to a special quarter in Nagasaki. Besides small trade of some outer daimyo with Korea and the Ryukyu Islands, to the southwest of Japan's main islands, by 1641, foreign contacts were limited by the policy of sakoku to Nagasaki.
By 1650, Christianity was almost completely eradicated, and external political, economic and religious influence on Japan became quite limited. Only China, the Dutch East India Company, and for a short period, the English, enjoyed the right to visit Japan during this period, for commercial purposes only, and they were restricted to the Dejima port in Nagasaki. Other Europeans who landed on Japanese shores were put to death without trial.



Rama finally replaces King Indrapura II in 1620 he became known as a king that loves his own people and he was known as Rama the Amorous by the historians, Rama was born in July 6, 1580.

Rama has a son named Indrapura who was born in September 6, 1610, Indrapura succeeded the throne after the death of Rama in 1640, he would deal with the Exploits of Koxinga

In 1624, Koxinga, whose name at birth was Zheng Sen, was born in Hirado, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan to Zheng Zhilong, a Chinese merchant and pirate, and a Japanese woman whose surname was Tagawa, and whose given name has been lost to posterity. He was raised there until the age of seven and then moved to Nan'an county in Quanzhou in Fujian province of China.
In 1638, Koxinga became a Xiucai (a successful candidate) in the imperial examination and became one of the twelve Linshansheng (廩膳生) of Nan'an. In 1641, Koxinga married the niece of Dong Yangxian, an official who was a Jinshi from Hui'an. In 1644, Koxinga studied at the Imperial Nanking University, where he met and became a student of the scholar Qian Qianyi.
In 1644, Beijing fell to rebels led by Li Zicheng and the Chongzhen Emperor hanged himself on a tree at modern-day Jingshan Park in Beijing. Manchurian armies aided by Wu Sangui's forces defeated the rebels and took the city. The Ming remnant forces retreated to Nanjing where the Prince Fu ascended to the throne as the Hongguang Emperor. The next year, the Manchurian armies led by Dodo advanced south and conquered Yangzhou and Nanjing while the Ming defending leader of Yangzhou, Shi Kefa, was killed. The Hongguang Emperor was captured and executed.

In 1645, Prince Tang was installed on the throne as the Longwu Emperor with support from Zheng Zhilong and his family. The Longwu Emperor established his court in Fuzhou, which was controlled by the Zhengs. In the later part of the year, another Ming Prince Lu proclaimed himself as Regent (監國) in Shaoxing and established his own court there. Although Prince Lu and Longwu's regimes stemmed from the same dynasty, both of them pursued different goals.
It was due to the natural defences of Fujian and the provision of military resources by the Zheng family, that the emperor was able to remain safe for some time. The Longwu Emperor granted Zheng Zhilong's son, Zheng Sen, a new personal name, "Chenggong" (success), and the title of Guoxingye ("Lord of the Imperial Surname"; Koxinga).
In 1646, Koxinga first led the Ming armies to resist the Manchurian invaders and won the favour of the Longwu Emperor. The Longwu Emperor's reign in Fuzhou was brief, as Zheng Zhilong refused to support his plans for a counter-offensive against the rapidly-expanding forces of the newly-established Qing Dynasty by the Manchus. Zheng Zhilong ordered the defending general of Xianxia Pass , Shi Fu (a.k.a. Shi Tianfu, a relative of Shi Lang), to retreat to Fuzhou even when Qing armies approached Fujian. As such, the Qing army faced little resistance when it conquered the north of the pass. In September 1646, Qing armies broke through inadequately defended mountain passes and entered Fujian. Zheng Zhilong retreated to his coastal fortress and the Longwu Emperor faced the Qing armies alone. Longwu's forces were destroyed and he was captured and died shortly afterwards.

The Qing forces sent envoys to meet Zheng Zhilong secretly and they offered to appoint him as the governor of both Fujian and Guangdong provinces if he would surrender to Qing. Zheng Zhilong agreed and ignored the objections of his family, surrendering himself to the Qing forces in Fuzhou on 21 November 1646. Koxinga and his uncles were left as the successors to the leadership of Zheng Zhilong's military forces. Koxinga operated outside Xiamen and recruited many to join his cause in a few months. He used the superiority of his naval forces to launch amphibious raids on Manchu-occupied territory in Fujian and he managed to take Tong'an in Quanzhou prefecture in early 1647. However, Koxinga's forces lacked the ability to defend the newly-occupied territory.
Following the fall of Tong'an to Zheng, the Manchus launched a counterattack in the spring of 1647, during which they stormed the Zheng family's hometown of Anping. Koxinga's mother, Lady Tagawa, had come from Japan in 1645 to join her family in Fujian (Koxinga's younger half-brother, Tagawa Shichizaemon, remained in Japan). She did not follow her husband to surrender to the Qing Dynasty. She was caught by Manchu forces in Anping and committed suicide after refusal to submit to the enemy, according to traditional accounts.


By 1650, Koxinga was strong enough to establish himself as the head of the Zheng family. He pledged allegiance to the only remaining claimant to the throne of the Ming Dynasty, the Yongli Emperor. The Yongli Emperor was fleeing from the Manchus in south-western China with a motley court and hastily assembled army then. Despite one fruitless attempt, Koxinga was unable to do anything to aid the last Ming emperor. Instead, he decided to concentrate on securing his own position on the southeast coast.

Koxinga enjoyed a series of military successes in 1651 and 1652 that increased the Qing government's anxiety over the threat he posed. The fight carried out massacre in Zhangzhou. Zheng Zhilong wrote a letter to his son from Beijing, presumably at the request of the Shunzhi Emperor and the Qing government, urging his son to negotiate with the Manchurians. The long series of negotiations between Koxinga and the Qing Dynasty lasted until November 1654. The Qing government appointed Prince Jidu (son of Jirgalang) to lead an attack on Koxinga's territory after the failed negotiations.
On 9 May 1656, Jidu's armies attacked Jinmen, an island near Xiamen that Koxinga had been using to train his troops. Partly as a result of a major storm, the Manchus were defeated and they lost most of their fleet in the battle. Koxinga had sent one of his naval commanders to capture Zhoushan island prior to Jidu's attack, and now that the Manchus were temporarily without an effective naval force in the Fujian area, Koxinga was free to send a huge army to Zhoushan, which he intended to use as a base to capture Nanjing.


In 1661, Koxinga forced a landing on Luerhmen (simplified Chinese: 鹿耳门; traditional Chinese: 鹿耳門; pinyin: Lù'ěrmén), Taiwan. In less than a year, he captured Fort Provintia and besieged Fort Zeelandia; with no external help coming, Frederick Coyett, the Dutch governor negotiated a treaty, where the Dutch surrendered the fortress and left all the goods and property of the Dutch East India Company behind. In return, all Dutch officials, soldiers and civilians left with their personal belongings and supplies back to Batavia (present-day Jakarta, Indonesia), ending the 38 years of Dutch colonial rule on Taiwan later on Koxinga attacked the Duchy established by Limahong in the Island of Selurong and annexed it and seized and annexed the Batanes group of Islands.

Koxinga proceeded to devote himself to building Taiwan into an effective base for anti-Qing Dynasty activists who wanted to restore the Ming Dynasty to power.

In 1662, at the age of 39, Koxinga died of malaria, although speculations said that he died in a sudden fit of madness upon hearing that his father was executed by the Qing government in Beijing.

His son, Zheng Jing, succeeded him as the ruler of Tungning, with the inherited title of Prince of Yanping.

Lakan Indrapura III of Mayi made peace with Koxinga in 1661 but they are an ally with Qing and Middag in order to drive out the Chinese from their land later on Camachat and Indrapura II creates a pact between two realms to destroy Tungning.

Lakan Rama II replaces Lakan Indrapura III in 1660, Rama II was born in July 19, 1645 Rama II increased the persecution of Christians in his realm and make the penalty for the adherence to the Christian religion as death, his successor, his son is also named Rama later known as Rama III because of this there are many hostilities in the borders.

Lakan Rama III who was born in July 19, 1670 becomes Lakan after the death of his Father in 1690.

Lakan Rama III re-established the truce between the Kingdom of Lagawe/Mayi or Manilan Empire with the Spanish and decided to close the borders to the Spanish.

In 1730. Rama IV becomes Lakan, he was born in January 16, 1710, he took the chance to attack in 1760 in the 7 years war the Southern Part of the Island of Selurong and tried to attack the Kingdom of Tungning and used many of his resources to attack them, Rama IV conquers the Southern Part of the Island of Selurong with his troop of fighters from the Cordillera mountains and bans Christianity which causes bloodshed and executions which caused the population in the South of the Island of Selurong to decline but Rama IV dies of Disintery in 1765 his son Rama V would replace him, Rama V was born in October 5. 1740, Rama V re-established the truce between them and Spain and gave them back the Spanish territory in the Island of Selurong to End Bloodshed and Mindoro and Kalamian returned to the rule of the Kingdom of Lagawe or Manilan Empire.


Modernization

Rama V also heard of the French revolution and his son Future Indrapura IV who was born in January 6, 1770 who he sent to study in India.

In 1800, Rama V, Camachat II and Yongyan attacked the Kingdom of Tungning and destroyed it completely and the lands of Tungning passes to Rama V and Camachat II, Batanes, Orchid Islands and Ilocos went to Rama V and Taiwan went to Camachat II completely, they made a victory feast in Taiwan.

In 1820, Indrapura IV becomes the Lakan and tries to conquer the Spanish part of the Island of Selurong repeatedly but repeatedly defeated his reign was known as a reign of over spending of Indrapura IV in wars but eventually his son Rama VI born in July 16 1800 replaces him in 1850, Rama VI made good relations with Queen Victoria and traded with England and modernized his realm and improved their trading with Siam and Vietnam but Rama VI’s only problem was his attitude but he was loved by the people and all of his subject and his son, the future Suryavarman born in Novemeber 5, 1830 was sent to Oxford to study.

Suryavarman would also continue the wars of his ancestors and had already captured the southern part of the Island of Selurong in 1870 which was controlled by the Spanish with British help but he found out that the land South of Pasig River has a small population and majority of the population has been decimated by wars so he sent some settlers and tolerated Christianity and signs a treaty with Spain to have Spain withdraw in their Island, he transferred the capital to OTL Tarlac city from Lagawe.

The son of Suvarayman, Indrapura V who was born in May 7, 1860 became Lakan in 1900, he became known for his modernizing the Island of Selurong he invited foreign investors in the Southern part of his lands devastated by wars, he had Americans enter his land which occupied Visayas because of the treaty of Paris, His son, Rama VII born in April 1 1890 would become Lakan in 1930, he was involved in World War II but decided to be a Pacifist Emperor, he was known for his Pacifism and after the war Commerce boomed and the post war baby boom happened and Visayas was granted independence and in 1970 after Lakan Indrapura V died Suryavarman II who was born in October 6, 1930, his family was always in camera, his son born, Indrapura-Gambang in July 9 1959 is being groomed at being Lakan whose family was admired by the people.

END

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